Posts tagged: APA 6th

Ambiguous Citations

15 July 2016

Or, how do you know what is what?


Let’s start with the basics:

When you are referencing your information sources you use citations within your text. These are brief, just names and a date in brackets, in your text.

Then at the end of your essay or assignment you have a reference list. This is a list of everything you have cited, with each reference providing the full details of the works you have cited in your writing.

This means if someone reading your work sees an interesting idea they can use the citation to find the matching reference, and then use the details in the reference to find the original work to read for themselves. read more

Watching your Weight?

5 February 2016

No, I’m not being personal about your wobbly bits, I’m talking about WORD COUNTS.

When you are given an assignment you are usually told how long it should be. This shouldn’t be a problem with short works like essays and reports, but when you are doing an extensive piece of work, such as a dissertation or other final year project, word counts can be worrying.

Is it too big?

Let’s look at what is and isn’t included in your word count.

First, what’s not included. The following are called “front matter” and are not part of your word count: read more

Referencing Dictionary Definitions

13 March 2015

dictionaryHave you used a definition of a word in your essay or assignment that you found in an online dictionary? You know that you need to reference it – but you can’t see an author, and you can’t see a year.

  • If a work has no author use the title in its place, that is, start your reference with the Title of the Entry, and use the title in your citation.
  • Sometimes you will also find that there is no date on the webpage. When this happen use (n.d.) instead of the year; n.d. stands for No Date.
  • Next, give the Title of the Dictionary, in italics.
  • End your reference with the “how to find it” information, which will be its URL.

For example:

Thistel-tak. (n.d.). Middle English Dictionary. Retrieved from

Your in-text citation will be (“Thistel-tak”, n.d.).

  • Some online dictionaries helpfully tell you the date of the entry, for example:

Triskaidekaphobia. (1986). Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved from read more

How to reference a tweet

3 July 2014

Have you ever wondered how to reference something you’ve found on Twitter?

Tweets are essentially tiny little blogs, so many of the rules are the same. There are some differences though.

Author: This will either be a person or a group. Start your reference with their real name,
e.g. Fry, S. or SalfordUniLibrary.
Follow this with their screen name, in square brackets, e.g. [stephenfry] or [TheLibraryUoS].

Date: as with all blogs, you need to provide both the year and the date, in parentheses,
e.g. (2014, 2nd July). read more